Halton C. Arp is a professional astronomer who, earlier in his career, was Edwin Hubble’s assistant. He has earned the Helen B.Warner prize, the Newcomb Cleveland award and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award. For years he worked at the Mt. Palomar and Mt. Wilson observatories. While there, he developed his well-known catalogue of “Peculiar Galaxies” that are misshapen or irregular in appearance.
Arp discovered, by taking photographs through the big telescopes, that many pairs of quasars (“quasi-stellar objects”) which have extremely high redshift z values (and are therefore thought to be receding from us very rapidly – and thus must be located at a great distance from us) are physically associated with galaxies that have low redshift and are known to be relatively close by. Arp has photographs of many pairs of high redshift quasars that are symmetrically located on either side of what he suggests are their parent, low redshift galaxies. These pairings occur much more often than the probabilities of random placement would allow. Mainstream astrophysicists try to explain away Arp’s observations of connected galaxies and quasars as being “illusions” or “coincidences of apparent location”. But, a large number of physically associated quasars and low redshift galaxies that he has photographed and catalogued defies that evasion. It simply happens too often.
Because of Arp’s photos, the assumption that high red shift objects have to be very far away – on which the “Big Bang” theory and all of “accepted cosmology” is based – is proven to be wrong! The Big Bang theory is, therefore, being seriously questioned.